25选5预测推荐 www.mwpqu.com 導讀：這是一篇關于數字圖書館管理的assignment，全文由兩個部分組成，并且這2個部分是有聯系的。選擇一個檔案作為主體，part1 是研究問題，part2 是測試這個檔案。具體的assignment寫作格式我們可以通過全文來了解。
Apart from papaer documents and databases, films also play an important role in historical research. This report centers on the function of films in historical research on the First World War using various archives especially the First World War Poetry Digital Archive and Europeana as supporting materials. The first part of this report begins with literature review that supports film’s vital role in historical research, followed by various archives used in this research. The second part of the report is mainly about the evaluation of digital archives used in this work including the scope, accessibility, professional support, archival policies, management methods, preversation problems and potential dangers.
Ever since the birth of ‘Black Maria’, the very first film production studio throughout the world, tremendous films and videos have been made covering economics, culture, history and all other areas. Films and videos inevitably reflected the cultural and historical conditions of times that films were made though the purposes behind might vary dramatically. Nowadays, film archiving is changing rapidly mainly because of great digital technology developments which in turn is transforming the way how historical research is carried out. Thus the relationship between historical researchon memorable events and film archives is very intriguing.
1.2 Research questions研究問題
To explore how film archives impact historical research, a few questions need further research:
1. To explore how people benefit from film archives in theGreat War research. 探討人們如何從大戰研究中的電影檔案中受益。
2. To evaluate film archives or collections used in this research.評估本研究中使用的電影檔案或館藏。
This report contained two major sections: part 1 and part 2. Part 1 centers on the influence of film archives in historical research which could be further divided into the following sections: introduction, methodology, discussion as well as conclusion. Part 2 is mainly about the evaluation of archives or collections used.
This report starts with the research topic on the role of film in historical research on the Great War. In order to answer this research question, the report starts with literature view. Relevant literature concerning this question will be provided to support the argument. Then different archives are used in search of substantial proof including the First World War poetry digital archive and Europeana. Another major part of this report is the evaluation of the archives used above. Several aspects of these archives are discussed including the introduction, scope, policy, professional support and help, description and arrangement methods, access to archives and potential issues.
2.1 Literature review
Historical research was mostly done in the ‘analogue’ or the non-digital way, including tremendous and laborious analysis of paper documents and databases. Consideration of films as resources used in historical research is rather challenging even though films are generally considered as legitimate source which could be used in historical research (OlafBerg, 2008). Kracauer and Ferro et al have made progress using film as historical research resource during their study of Nazism in German and Russian revolutionary history respectively (Siegfried Kracauer, 1947; Marc Ferro, et al., 1988). More and more historical journals are putting their attention on film reviews and famous historians have started participation in producing historical films (Rosenstone, 1988; Rosenstone, 1995; Rosenstone, 1983; Natalie Zemon Davis; 2000).
2.2 Finding of archives
A few different film archives were used to conduct this research includingEuropeana,First World War Poetry Digital Archive, Great War Archive and Regional film archives. Film as historical research resource is rather a big range and specific topic might suit better, hereafter we center on the role offilm during the Great War.
Films regarding the First World War in Great War Archive covered various areas including the battle destruction (Post battle destruction, 1916; Devastated landscape, 1916), women and war (Women and the war, 1918; Women marching in support of war, 1916), casualty evacuation (Evacuation of the wounded, 1916) and many other aspects (Battle training, 1916; Supplying the guns, 1916). Films tend to present vivid images about particular events and conditions during the war.
Europeana contains large amount of films concerning the Great War that might serve as valuable resource material in historical research. For example, films present air raid practice, procedures in the event of an enemy attack, parade for victory or even Christmas shopping. These critical important materials might give us the illusion that we see or even experience the troubles, fears, happiness of those lives from that certain time.
British universities Film & Video council also covered lots of film material concerning the Great War. Margaret Thatcher on peace in Europe, a speech given by the Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1984. During this speech, she talks about the great losses of lives during the Great War and also the Second World War and addressed the biggest political challenge in Europe is the preservation of peace.
EU Screen also contained collections regarding the World War, such as Movies and Memories: Wartime which is a compilation of archive footage centering on the World War.
Film is cultural artifact that created by certain culture and considered an important source of entertainment, also a powerful and wonderful medium for educating the public. Historians insist on “acknowledging the contribution to historical insight and understanding that films can provide through their experiential qualities”.
For one thing, film is a very important way of documenting historical events which might play vital role in historical research and can show the future generation what’s happened hundreds of years ago through vivid moving pictures. As Pasquale Savino and Carol Peters stated that when understanding of historical event, filming is quite different from paper documents.
The First World War Poetry Digital Archive contains various film archives about battle. Films of soldiers climbing out of shallow trench (Battle training, 1916), wounded soldier being carried on a stretcher (Evacuation of the wounded, 1916), exhausted men resting (Post battle trauma, 1916). Europeanaalso provides film archives of soldiers digging a trench line (With the British forces for the defence of Salonika, 1916), leisure and entertainment at the front (Leisure and entertainment during the First World War, 1918). All these film archives reflect the battlefield during the Great War which might serve as valuable materials for historical research.
For another thing, film about the Great War serves as a great tool to educate the general public and research for higher education. The film collection of the Great Archive contains The Battle of the Somme, a British documentary film that depicts chariots of war, exhibiting infantry in marching, treating of wounded British and German soldiers. This film was widely distributed in eighteen other countries and quite a famous film showing the First World War.America’s answer to the Huns (Europeana search result) covers the transfer of Americal manpower and materiel across the Atlantic. The film puts constant emphasis on the scale of American industrial might which clearly serves a role to convey hope and confidence to their people.
Furthermore films about the Great War convey complicated information for this and the future generations, such as international peace, and war destructions. Videos and films are ubiquitous, from traffic and military satellite to scientific research, from national television channels to home videos online. Each one is made for certain purposes. Young people tend to try new things out of excitement or provocation, however they have no idea of what they have chosen. All quiet on the western line (Europeana search result) is about young, enthusiastic students going into the battlefield during the First World War. They have naïve dreams about lives and war until personally experienced the struggle, the pain and destruction of war. The film clearly wants our young generation to cherish the valuable peace nowadays rather than to fight with other countries.