25选5预测推荐 www.mwpqu.com 導讀：本文是一篇hospitality sales and marketing專業的individual case study .
在企業管理中，縱向一體化的含義是指公司的供應鏈由該公司所有。在一般情況下，供應鏈的每一個成員都將提供一種獨特的產品或服務，并結合產品以滿足共同的需求。橫向積分與縱向積分形成對比。垂直整合也被認為是一種管理方式，它可以包含供應鏈的很大一部分，避免了拖延的問題。例如，19世紀，鋼鐵大亨安德魯卡內基（Andrew Carnegie）就采用了這一策略，充分利用該系統改善財務狀況，提高工作效率。In order to become successful in the travelling and hospitality industry, there are various marketing strategies which have been employed. The competitions in the modern market become fiercer. Among the marketing strategies, the vertical integration plays an essential role(Etgar, 1978). The leaders of companies or corporations should have a good knowledge and employ vertical integration to expand the size and areas of the business, which will contribute to the development of the company in the long run(Arrow, 1975). Hospitality and travelling are the two industries that focus on the service for human beings, which must consider the feelings and necessities of people all the time.
In the business management, the meaning of vertical integration is that an arrangement where the company’s supply chain is owned by that corporation. In common cases, every member of the supplying chain will offer one distinct product or service, and the combine of the products to meet the common needs. Horizontal integration is contrasted with vertical integration. Vertical integration is also considered as a kind of management styles which can include great portions of the supply chain, avoiding the problem of hold-up. For instance, in the 19th century, steel tycoon Andrew Carnegie has employed this strategy to make full use of the system to improve the financial situation and promote the working efficiency.
Vertical integration can be divided into 3 typical forms, which is considered as the degree to which a certain corporation owns the buyers in the downstream and the suppliers in the upstream. It is distinct from the horizontal integration which consolidates lots of corporations that deal with the same element of a producing process(Arrow, 1975). Vertical integration has the characteristic of one corporation engaged in various parts of the production, such as the providing the raw materials, producing, and marketing. The three types can be called the upstream vertical integration, downstream vertical integration and the balanced vertical integration. Every type of vertical integration has been employed in the business from the oil industry to the hospitality industry. There are many cases which have proved the benefits of the vertical integration. However, every coin has two sides. The aim of all the business is to make profits. With the competitions in the market becoming more and more fierce, it is necessary for a company to employ proper strategies to improve the businesses, but the managing strategy should be based on the specific situation of the corporation(Pickering, 1999).
The benefits and the losses of the vertical integration can be analyzed in the external and internal aspects. The benefits in the internal aspects include the lower cost in the transaction, and the balance of demand and supply in the products’ chain, and the uncertainty in the investment will also become lower(Etgar, 1978). The company can also employ the vertical integration to monopolize the industry by the market foreclosure, which can also promote the strategic independence of the corporation. On the other hand, the cost for coordination is much higher, and the cost in the monetary and organization aspects will also be higher(Dobson, 1996). The motivation for performing well at the very beginning of the supply chain will be weaker, for the sales of the products have been ensured, which may cause the shortcomings of the final products.
For the society, on the one hand, the reduced uncertainty can offer much better chances for the increase in investment(Martinez, 1997). The ability for the local corporations will be strengthened to deal with the competitions of the foreign companies. However, it can also lead to the monopolization in a certain market, and the organizational structure can be too rigid to promote the development of the economy.
One of the most important advantages of the strategy of vertical integration is that it can reduce lots of the price markups in every procedure of the products, which can decrease the cost and creates the economies of scale(Martinez, 1997). Most of the companies employed the vertical integration can also gain the efficiency in the cost by managing the quality in every procedure. Moreover, the vertically-integrated corporations do not have to bother to allocate the resources to price, contract, pay and coordinate with the third-party vendors. Finally, vertical integration can also create the obstacles for the potential competitors when the corporation controls all the access to a few or all of a resource that a certain production needs, which has raised the antitrust worries(Crew, 1971).
A corporation should own its own expertise in every procedure of the production and the process of distribution to make full use of benefits of vertical integration(Williamson, 1971). For instance, X Corporation must know the methods to grow potatoes and the way to produce French fries as well. In order to stimulate a few aspects of the strategy of vertical integration in a more implicit way, corporations will hope to sign long-term contracts with some certain suppliers.
The vertical expansion in modern economy become more and more common, which is considered as the growth of a corporation by acquiring other corporations which produce the intermediate commodities that is necessary for the business or useful for marketing and distributing its goods(Comanor, 1967). This kind of expansion can be desirable, for it can secure the supplies that are needed by the corporation to produce its goods. This can reduce the cost, and the business profits and efficiency will also be improved as well.
The hospitality and travelling industry both provide service to the customers, which can employ the vertical industry to help the customers to solve all the necessities in the hotel or during a trip, which aims to make the customers to feel more comfortable in certain situations(Hirsch, 1952).
The development of the products in the hospitality and travel industry also plays great role in the success of a company. In order to increase the sales amount of a product, the corporations should pay attention to the needs of the customers and to development new products based on the customers’ demands. Only in this way can the companies achieve success in the fierce competitions in the market.
卡爾森公司（Carlson Companies Inc.）一直被稱為卡爾森公司（Carlson），這是一家由美國人私人持有的公司，是一家國際性公司，在旅游和酒店行業享有盛名（Aust，1997）。總部設在明尼蘇達州，其服務和品牌在150多個國家和地區雇用了17萬多人。2012年卡爾森的銷售額總計超過360億美元。這家公司已成為美國最大的家族控股公司之一。
在采用垂直集成策略之前，應該考慮兩個重要因素。Carlson Companies Inc. is always called Carlson, which is a corporation held by an American privately and is an international firm, being famous in the travel and hotel industries(Aust, 1997). The headquarter of it is in Minnetonka, whose services and brands have employed more than 170,000 human beings in more than 150 nations and territories. The sales of Carlson were totaled up to more than $36 billion in the year of 2012. This corporation has become one of the biggest family-held companies in America.
Vertical integration, as a useful managing strategy, various corporations have employed to obtain control over some certain industry’s value chain. This method has become one of the main considerations when a company decides to develop the corporate level tactic(Dobson, 1996). The essential issue in corporate strategy is the decision on taking part in an activity or lots of activities in the markets. For instance, the corporation has to determine if it only produces one product or will also be involved in the marketing and services(Comanor, 1967).
There are two important that should be considered before employing the vertical integration strategy.
First, costs in the business matters great for the success of a company. A firm should take the measures to vertically integrate if the costs of manufacturing the product by the company itself are lower than the costs of purchasing that goods in the market. For Carlson, the hotel is the place where the customers can have rest and enjoy the hotel services in various aspects(Williamson, 1971). Most of the products can be produced by a company, so the Carlson has employed this characteristic to employ the vertical integration to acquire many firms to do the vertical expansion(Aust, 1997). The company was called the Carlson Companies Inc. in the year of 1973, for it has the business in the hospitality, travel industries and corporate incentive. For example, in the year of 1962, Carlson bought its first hotel named Radisson Hotel, and then bought T.G.I. Friday's and Country Kitchen International. The reason why the vertical integration can benefit the development of the Carlson Company is that it can lower the cost in the travel industry, for the travellers need to find the proper hotel to live during the journey, which will call for the service of helping the customers to contact with hotels(Bain, 1956). Therefore, by purchasing many hotels, it will be more convenient for people to travel around the world.