Abstract:In this article, a study of the architectural tectonicsis presented. Firstly, an introduction on this subject is given to help readers to establish a basic understanding on the architectural tectonics. In the next section, typical tectonic works by Sean Godsell and Stutchbury & Pape are presented, as well as interpretations by critics,historians and peers. Additionally, the contributions of works by celebrated architects such as Godsell and Stutchbury &Pape to the development of architecture tectonics are discussed. In the last part, a short summary ofthe article is presented, followed by the outlook of the architectural tectonics in the future development of Australian architecture.
一般來說，當代澳大利亞建筑涉及三個持久的設計傳統，即構造理論、抽象層次和比喻理論（Goad和Bingham Hall 2005）。在這三種傳統中，構造學被認為是主要的，并已被各種學者和研究團體所研究。建筑學建立于1840年，是一門與設計和應用有關的建筑科學。這一主體解決了與客戶需求相對應的實質性必要結構。更重要的是，它的目標是使建筑不僅是一個建筑，而且是一個藝術品。在1840年至1852年出版的著作中，卡爾·波提徹將建筑構造學定義為一門研究建筑的學科，即通過建造過程而不是模仿物體的過程來研究建筑（Schwarzer 1993）。在這個理論中，建筑不再是幾種形式的集合，而是指無限的和三維的。物理力和社會力的動態宇宙包括對功能、結構和象征的綜合研究，也就是說，建筑的機械本質是通過對藝術和自然的主觀感知而與其藝術象征分離的。這一理論對現代澳大利亞的建筑美學有著重要的影響，并在建筑方面產生了一系列的創新。
Generally, the contemporaryAustralian architecture involves three persistent design traditions, namely the tectonic theory, the levels of abstraction and the figurative theory(Goad and Bingham-Hall 2005). Among the three traditions, the tectonics is considered as the majorone and has been investigated by various scholars and research groups. Established in 1840, thearchitectural tectonicsis defined as the science of construction in relation to designand application. This subjectinvolves the materially requisite construction corresponding to needs from clients. More importantly, it aims atmaking the construction not only a building but also an art piece. In his books published between 1840 and 1852, Karl Botticher defined architectural tectonics as a subject that investigates the architecture through the processes which made up building, instead of imitation of objects(Schwarzer 1993).In this theory, the architecture is no longer a collection of severalforms;instead, it refers to an infinite and dynamic universe of physical and social forcesand involves an integrated study of function, structure, and symbolism.In other words, the mechanical essence of architectures is separated from its artistic symbolism by the subjective perception of art and nature. This theory has a significant influence on the architectural aesthetics in modern Australia and has led to a series of innovations in the architectures.
II. Study of Architectural Tectonics建筑構造學研究
2.1 Works by Sean Godsell肖恩·戈德塞爾的作品
Sean Godsell is a celebrated Australian architect whose works have been published in the leading Architectural journals such as Architectural Review and Architectural Record(Godsell and Van Schaik 2005).In 2002,wallpaper,a top design magazine, listed him as one of the talents(the only Australian and the only Architect in this list) who will ‘change the way we live’. His works is a perfect combination oftraditional Australian patterns and modern architectural elements. Sean Godsell has been highly recognized by critics, historians and peers in this field.
For instance, Leon van Schaik, an architecture critic and a Professor of Architecture from RMIT, spoke highly of Sean Godsell and his works such as the St. Andrews beach house. In his reviews, Sean Godsell defined as a ‘rare find’whose worksaremasterpieces of hightechnological and aesthetical values.Indeed, Leon van Schaikconsidered Sean Godsell as a good example of the saying that ‘true architecture belongs to people with both an eye for design and total dedication to the discipline’. According toLeon van Schaik, the spare modern forms meld beautifully with rich weathered materials and each work is a tribute to its unique setting in the landscape. Additionally, many of the rich materials are off-the-shelf industrial items,including stair treads, corrugated metals and pneumatic hinges. Sean Godsell depicts a modern world that is environmentallysensitive and technologicallyadvanced.More importantly, the world depicted is far from horror, coldness the nightmares.
According to David Clark, the residential works of Sean Godsell are designed around a set of principles and ideas uniting East and West traditions. For instance, aisles,which are frequently used as anunlimited circulation spaceinthe Eastern (particularly Japanese and Chinese) architecture,arecombined with verandah of Australian rural homesteads and Queenslandersin most of his works. A typical example of Sean Godsell’s works is the Carter/Tucker House(Schaik 2005). In this building,the lower two floors can be divided into discrete spaces by sliding walls. This design was inspired by traditional Japanese houses.On the other hand, with the tilt-up panels in the timber-battened facade open, a verandah-like room can becreated in the interior. A private space can be retained with the sliding wall closed while the verandah serves asa circulation.
In summary, Sean Godsell is an outstanding representative of architectural tectonics and recognized as one of the most influentialmodern architects both in Australia and globally.
2.2Works by Stutchbury & Pape
Peter Stutchbury is an Australian architectwhose architectural stylehas been described as ‘lyrical technologist’(Goad 2004).In 1991, Peter Stutchburyestablished a joint practice with Phoebe Pape, another Australian architect.Since then,Stutchbury& Pape have created a variety of fascinating buildings that are highly recognized by peers and critics and the joint practice has received 17 Awards from the Royal Australian Institute ofArchitecture(Beaver 2004). For instance, Philip Goad, an Australian academic and Professor of Architecture at the University of Melbourne, described thearchitectural style of Stutchbury& Pape as ‘lyrical technologist’.
The bangalay is one of the most recognized works byStutchbury& Pape. Bangalay is aglass-and-timber beacon of a house located in the suburban area of Sydney.Consisting of 10 recycled hardwood frames, this work exhibits a distinctiveAustralian style and provides anextraordinary example ofcollective Aboriginal art.On the other hand, the design of this house is highly consistent with the surroundings. The house is completely self-sufficient:it employs up-to-date environmental technologies such as under-floor heating pipes, solar panels and natural cross ventilation. At the eastern side, a long corridor starting from the front door and running the length of the house is created;every room in this house comes off this corridor, which is recognized as the most important design of the house (by Peter Stutchbury), thus making the organization of the house very clear.The very Australian skillion roof, at its highest level possible, allows the light to stream into the living room in the morning. A large sheltered courtyard located at the centre divides the living and sleeping areasand serves as an open dining room (with a barbecue).
Another representative work by Stutchbury& Pape is theSydney International Archery Centre. Lying beside the new wetlands of Homebush Bay, the Archery Centreis enclosed by mangrove fringes and two collections ofsculptural poles.The roof leans forward sharply, and twists along its length: a metaphor for the flight of an arrow. According to Peter Stutchbury, the design of this building involved the verandah, which is a unique character of shelter in Australia. Inspired by verandah, afly roof with a tent is created toprotect the building underneath and the area outside the building.
In summary,Stutchbury& Pape have created a distinctive architectural style that has been described as ‘lyrical technologist’. Typical examples include the bangalay and the International Archery Centre in Sydney.
In conclusion, the architectural tectonics in the Australian architects is discussed. The first part is a brief introduction on this subject in terms of definition, history and characteristics. Afterwards, two representative and influential architects (Sean Godsell and Stutchbury& Pape) and their works are presented, as well as interpretations by critics, historians and peers. It can be concluded that to the tectonics has made a significant contribution to the development of modern architectures in Australia.
IV. Future Outlook
As one of the three persistent design traditions in modernAustralian architecture, the tectonics is believed to continuously influence the global architecture. In the near future, thearchitectural tectonicsis to spread in the areas with similar cultures, such as Japan and China. In the long term, this architectural subject has a great potential to become one of the leading architectural styles globally.