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25选5基本走势图:澳洲social science termpaper:女權主義者和一個后女權主義者之間關于三個問題的辯論

時間:2019-04-02 13:39來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
導讀:這是一篇澳洲社會學學期論文,說的是女權主義和后女權主義的爭論有三種方式。首先,考慮到女性壓迫的根源,女權主義認為是父權制,后女權主義則認為是男性話語權。其次,在追求
導讀:這是一篇澳洲社會學學期論文,說的是女權主義和后女權主義的爭論有三種方式。首先,考慮到女性壓迫的根源,女權主義認為是父權制,后女權主義則認為是男性話語權。其次,在追求平等的過程中,女權主義認為應該采取激烈的措施來推翻男性制度,女權主義主張應該與男性進行全面的合作以獲得男性的支持。最后,從對男女差異的認識來看,女權主義主張消除對女性的性別差異,建立女性文化,反對取悅男性。其次,女權主義認為,應認識到男女的差異,促進男女和諧發展,女性應表現出獨特的魅力。
1.0 Introduction引言
性別不平等是人類社會中一個長期存在的社會問題(IOANA,2013年)。女權主義和后女權主義是指導人們解決這一問題的兩種理論。盡管這兩種理論是為了解決男女不平等問題而提出的,但女權主義者和后女權主義者之間也存在著爭論(Gamble,1999年)。如何利用這些理論來解決女性的壓迫問題,具有重要的意義。本文從女性壓迫的根源、女性對平等的追求、對男女差異的認識三個方面介紹了這兩種理論的爭論。
Gender inequality is a long-standing social problem in human society (Ioana, 2013). Feminism and post-feminism are two kinds of theories to guide people to solve this problem. Although these two theories are put forward to solve the inequality between men and women, there is also a debate between a feminist and a post-feminist (Gamble, 1999). It is a great significance to understand how to make use of these theories to solve the problem of female oppression. This essay will introduce the debate between the two theories from three aspects: the root causes of female oppression, women's pursuit of equality, and the cognition on differences between male and female.
2.0 Body 主體
2.1 The root of female oppression女性壓迫的根源
女權主義認為父權制是壓迫婦女的根源(Mehrpouyan和Banehmir,2014)。父權制對婦女的壓迫不僅限于經濟和政治活動的公共領域,家庭和性是父權統治的工具。例如,在我的家鄉,古老的一夫多妻制導致許多婦女只能依靠男人生活,失去了獨立性(Gamble,1999)。后現代女權主義認為,女性受到壓迫,這不僅是因為制度,還應該從文化或意識形態的角度來理解(Pollard,2009年)。后女權主義認為權力由話語構成,女性受到壓迫,這在很大程度上與男性擁有話語權有關(Gamble,1999)。例如,在我的家鄉,當今社會的婦女比過去有更大的受教育機會和晉升機會,在當今社會,對婦女的公共歧視制度幾乎不存在。這些現象表明,當前婦女壓迫的社會制度已經大大減少。然而,在當今社會,婦女不可避免地受到不平等的對待。例如,女性在同一職位上的工資比男性低;在高科技領域或擔任高級管理職位的男性人數明顯高于女性。造成這種不平等的原因在于男性話語權,由于“女性不如男性”思想在公共意識形態中長期存在,普遍存在著女性在許多方面不如男性的刻板印象,導致女性受到壓迫。
Feminism believes that patriarchy is the source of oppression of women (Mehrpouyan and Banehmir, 2014). Patriarchy's oppression towards women is not limited to the public sphere of economic and political activity, family and sex are instruments of patriarchal domination. For example, the ancient polygamy system in my hometown resulted in that many women could only live through relying on men, losing independence (Gamble, 1999). Postmodern feminism argues that women are oppressed, which is not only because of systems, it should also be understood from cultural or ideological perspectives (Pollard, 2009). Post-feminism argues that power is composed of discourse, women are oppressed, which is largely related to that men have discourse power (Gamble, 1999).  For example, in my hometown, women in today's society have far greater access to education and promotion opportunities than in the past, and the system of public discrimination against women is almost non-existent in the present society. These phenomena show that the current social system of women's oppression has been greatly reduced. However, in the current society, women are inevitably treated unequally. For example, women are paid lowly than men in the same positions; and the number of males in high-tech fields or taking senior management positions is significantly higher than that of women. The cause of the inequality lies in men’s discourse power, as there is a long history of the presence of the thought of “"females as inferior as males", in the public ideology, the stereotypes that women in many ways are not as inferior as men exist widely, which has resulted in women’s being oppressed.
2.2 The pursuit of equality
Feminism leads women to hate men, and feminists believe that social systems are a system characterized by power, domination, hierarchy, and competition (Pollard, 2009). The system is the root cause of inequality between men and women. Equality between men and women requires not only the overthrow of the legal, political and economic structures of male domination, but also the overthrow of their social and cultural systems, especially the families, churches and colleges. In the feudal times in my hometown, the existence of polygamous marriage system, the ideology of male domination and female subordination, is the factor of oppressing women. Entering the modern society, these systems have been abolished, the ideological transformation brings opportunity to modern women in pursuing equality. Postmodernism argues that the relationship between men and women is not antagonistic but interrelated, interdependent and interdependent (Gamble, 1999). It suggests that gender equality should be established on the basis of recognizing the uniqueness of genders, advocating full cooperation with men and seeking the support of men, so that many men can become women's allies and partners, it argues that the relationship between men and women should be changed from male-dominated mode to partnership mode. In my hometown today, the status of women has been greatly improved, but it does not mean that the importance of men declines, many women-related issues such as the improvement of women's economic status, the resolution of violence requires male support and cooperation.
2.3 Differences between males and females
Traditional feminism thinks that equality is to strive for the same power as what men have. To achieve social and political rights and enter the field of men, women should use male standards to require themselves, trying to eliminate gender differences between men and women to achieve equality between men and women (Ioana, 2013). Therefore, feminism opposes that women are through cosmetics, beauty, clothing and other ways to please men, but this way of eliminating gender differences between men and women to achieve gender equality results in that in fighting for equality between men and women, it denies physiological differences between men and women, as well as the uniqueness of women, resulting in new inequalities. In the face of the problems brought by feminism, another feminism named radical feminism has turned to emphasize gender differences. It advocates emancipating the domination and oppression of men by emphasizing gender differences, affirming women's values and emotions, and promoting women's culture based on the nature of women. Postmodern feminism proposes a new concept of equality between men and women, recognizing the differences between men and women, going against the male-centered culture, it also opposes women-centered culture and advocates a pluralistic view to build social culture, so as to achieve women's emancipation and equality between men and women to promote the harmonious development of both genders (Gamble, 1999).Therefore, post-feminism advocates that women are through clothing, make-up, beauty and other ways to highlight their feminine charm, post-feminist do not take these acts as to please men, but a way to show women charm and differences.
3.0 Conclusion
Feminism and post-feminism are debated in three ways. Firstly, considering the root of women's oppression, feminism believes that it is patriarchy while post-feminism considers it as men's discourse power. Secondly, in the pursuit of equality, feminism holds that it should take drastic measures to overthrow male systems, and feminist advocates that it should carry out comprehensive cooperation with men to get male support. Finally, from the perspective of cognition on differences between male and female, feminism advocates the elimination of gender disparities against women, establishing a female-based culture, and opposes pleasing men. Then feminism believes that the difference between men and women should be recognized to promote the harmonious development of both genders, women should show their unique charm.
 
References
Gamble, S. (1999). The Routledge Company to feminism and post-feminism. London: Routledge.
Ioana, I. M. (2013). The Evolution of the Romanian Feminism in the 20th Century. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 81(28), 454-458.
Mehrpouyan, A. and Banehmir, S. S. A. (2014). Feminism and Feminine Culture in Modern Women Writers’ Works: with Special Reference to Anne Sexton and Audre Lorde. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 158(19), 199-205.
Pollard, J. (2009). Feminism and Work. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 29-36.
 


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