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25选5开奖结果今晚:代寫澳洲公共政策termpaper:什么是公共政策What is Public Policy?

時間:2019-04-15 14:07來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
What is Public Policy? 什么是公共政策? 1、 What is the role of public policy?公共政策的作用是什么? 我認為公共政策起到干預和穩定的作用,調節社會功能,促進經濟健康發展。 I think a public policy pla
What is Public Policy? 什么是公共政策?
1、 What is the role of public policy?公共政策的作用是什么?
我認為公共政策起到干預和穩定的作用,調節社會功能,促進經濟健康發展。
I think a public policy plays a role of intervention and stabilisation.To adjustfunction of social and promote the healthy development of the economy
2、What is the role of government in modern states?政府在現代國家的作用是什么?
政府是統治土地及其人民的正式機構。政府的基本職能是提供社會制度環境,制定公共政策。
Government isthe formal institutions through which a land and its people are ruled. The basic function of government is to provide the social system environment and make public policy.
3、What factors should be take into account when making policy ?制定政策時應考慮哪些因素?
澳大利亞是一個自由民主的國家,因此在討論政策制定時,我們需要考慮政府的性質,如自由主義、多元主義、聯邦制和國際影響。
Australia is a liberal democratic state, therefore when we talk about policy making, we need to consider the character of  the government such as liberalism, pluralism, federalism and international influences.
Making Public Policy: Theory and Practice in the Australian Context公共政策制定:澳大利亞背景下的理論與實踐
1、 Could you describe the concepts of actor?你能描述一下演員的概念嗎?
澳大利亞公共政策進程的行動者(州或聯邦層面)包括內閣、議會、政黨、記者和媒體、政府和非政府組織的專家以及廣泛的利益或壓力團體。
Actors in public policy processes in Australia (at state or commonwealth levels) include cabinet, parliament, political parties, journalists and the media, experts in governmental and non-government organizations, and a wide range of interest or pressure groups. 
2、What is the meaning of pluralism and ‘corporatism’?多元主義和“社團主義”是什么意思?
“多元主義”和“社團主義”是對國家與利益集團或壓力集團的關系提供不同解釋的概念?;故欽吖痰鬧行?,但其影響的程度和性質各不相同。
‘Pluralism’ and ‘corporatism’ are concepts offering different explanations about how the state relates to interest or pressure groups.Agency is central to the policy process, but the extent and nature of their influence is various.
3、What is the basic features of Australia’s system of government?
Federalism,it is a system of government characterized by a division of powers between two levels of government. Local government in Australia is not constitutionally recognized, and exists on the basis of State government legislation. 
Policy Analysis: Four Methods
1、Could you describe some methods of policy analysis?
Iwould like to list four different policy analysis: internal, external, comparative and policy discourse analysis, which applied according to policy objectives ,outcomesand requirements.
2、 Could you conclude “policy discourse analysis”?
The focus is the deep conceptual premises operating within how problems are represented. Analysts using this method to learn what social meanings contribute to the policy being seen to be necessary.
3、What is the role of policy analysis?
Policy analysis is a crucial step . Firstly, Policy makers must be able to see that their policies are achieving the desired effect. In addition, circumstances might change to render the policy redundant, or politically problematic. 
Topic 4 – Economic Policy
1、 Describe the importance of economic policy
The economyis a basic obligation of governments to ensure favorable conditions for production, trade and other economic activities. Economic policy, therefore, is not merely one policy domain among others (education, health, foreign relations, etc.) but an area of foremost concern to governments. 
2、What is the pre-Keynesian view?
On this view, the purpose of taxation was limited to the raising of revenue to pay for necessary government expenses,expenditure needed always to be minimised in order to avoid crowding out private activity.
3、What is pluralism and the ‘privilege’ of business?
Governments have only limited autonomy on economic policy,whichis constrained by the imperative of delivering the requisite conditions for continued capital accumulation, i.e. For business to make profits. 
Topic 5 – Welfare Policy
1. What is the definition of “welfare state”?
The welfare state refers to state-protected minimum standards of income, health, housing, education and personal social services, provided on the basis of a notion of rights and entitlements for citizens, rather than on the notion of charity. 
2.What is the historical background to the development of Australia’s welfare state.
In Australia, the origins of welfare come from social democratic ideas of a mixed economy, that is, a system underpinned by private enterprise complemented by public enterprise in the form of social services, and the redistribution of wealth through the tax-transfer welfare system. The economist
3.How about the Neo-conservatives see welfare?
Neo-conservatives see welfare as producing the worst characteristics in humans: laziness and disinclination to work; the inclination to focus on living in the present rather than planning for the future; an inclination towards defrauding the government system.
Topic 6 – Education Policy
1. How the federal system affects the provision of schools’ education in Australia?
For many decades, schools (and universities) evolved within relatively stable patterns of inter-governmental relations, with the Commonwealth playing only a limited role in education policy.
2. Describe the policy process in an institutionalist perspective.
Policy processes, in an institutionalist perspective, occur within the context of already established institutions – ‘norms, values, relationships, power structures and “standard operating procedures”’. Institutions are quite stable most of the time.
3.How about education in the information economy
In the contemporary information economy, innovation within high-tech industries draws extensively on research undertaken within the tertiary-education sector, and education generally is considered central to economic prosperity.
Topic 7 - Health policy
1. The importance of health.
Health is of political and ideological perspectives and economic interests, and in terms of social and cultural values. All citizens have a direct interest in the health-care system and a wide range of public and private actors participate in the policy process.
2 .Describe “market failure”.
The main types of ‘market failure’ are as follows: when there is a monopoly and abuse of market power, if there is insufficient or inadequate information available, when goods or services are ‘public goods’, when there are external cost of benefits (externalities or spillovers) resulting from a transaction in the market.
3.What standard to distinguish health systems?
Health systems can be organized in different ways, notably in terms of the role of private and public organizations and interests. 
Topic8 - Environment Policy
1. Understand the term environmental movement
In Australia, the environmental movement has had an important impact on politics and the political system, including a wave of institutional and legislative change, including significant shifts in Commonwealth–State relations.
2. Describe social movements
The social movements in the period since the 1960s – including women’s, peace, consumer, gay rights, animal liberation, ethnic, racial minority, and the environment movement – have brought about significant change to the politics and society of the Western.
3.Whyenvironmental issues need internationalized policy ?
Many environmental issues cannot be contained within national borders and have given rise to political processes and institutional structures at the transnational level.
Topic 11 – Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Policy
1. What is the harm of alcohol?
Alcohol consumption in Australia is widespread, and the level of risky or high risk consumption has significant effects on health, society and the economy. It contributes to disability and death through accidents, violence, suicide and homicide. 
2. How about attitudes towards alcohol?


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