A Study on Mental Health of Chinese Undergraduates in the UK英國大學生心理健康狀況研究
1.0 Introduction 簡介
截至2015年底，由于中英兩國在社會歷史，政治制度，經濟發展水平等方面存在差異，大約有12萬名在英國留學的中國學生（2015年高等教育統計機構）由于兩國成員在價值觀，思維和行為模式上的差異（Hunley，2010），英國的中國學生不可避免地受到英國文化的影響，影響所帶來的最大問題是中國學生心理健康問題，如孤獨，抑郁，煩躁，放縱（Wang，2014）。如果這些心理問題得不到妥善解決，不僅會給中國學生的未來發展帶來巨大障礙，還會給英國教育界的國際吸引力和形象帶來一定的損害（Rudd and Waring，2012）。本研究從文化差異的角度探討了中國留學生心理問題產生的原因，以及心理問題的負面影響，以期對如何解決這些心理問題進行推薦。
By the end of 2015, there were about 120,000 Chinese students who have studied in the UK (Higher education statistics agency, 2015), due to differences between China and Britain in terms of social history, political system, levels of economic development, as well as differences between members of the two countries in values, thinking and behavior patterns (Hunley, 2010), Chinese students in the UK are inevitably affected by the impact of British culture, the biggest problem arising by the impact is bringing Chinese students mental health problems, such as loneliness, depression, irritability, indulgence (Wang, 2014). If these mental problems can not be solved properly, it will not only bring a huge obstacle to the future development of Chinese students, but also bring certain damage to the international appeal and image of the British education sector (Rudd and Waring, 2012). The study was from the perspective of cultural differences to discuss the causes of mental problems of Chinese students studying in the UK, and the negative effects of the mental problems, so as to recommend on how to solve these mental problems.
2.0 Main body主體
2.1 Literature review 文獻綜述
到目前為止，西方研究人員已經提出了許多不同的文化適應理論和模型，如歐貝格的文化沖擊模型，它根據文化適應的生理和心理感受來描述他們經歷的文化影響，作為一個由四個階段組成的過程：蜜月，?；?，復蘇和調整（Oberg，1960）。 Lysgaar（1955）提出了U - 曲線假說，該假設指出，旅居者的文化適應過程一般經歷三個階段，即初始調整，?；?，重新調整。阿德勒（1975）提出了一個文化適應的五階段模型，它將文化適應過程分為五個階段：接觸，解體，重新融合，自治和獨立。
So far, Western researchers have proposed a number of different theories and models of cultural adaptation, such as Oberg’s culture shock model, which is according to the physiological and psychological feelings of cultural adapters to describe their experienced cultural impact as a process consisting of four stages: honeymoon, crisis, recovery and adjustment (Oberg, 1960). Lysgaar (1955) put forward U - curve hypothesis, which states that the process of cultural adaptation of sojourners generally goes through three stages, namely initial adjustment, crisis, regained adjustment. Adler (1975) proposed a five-stage model of cultural adaptation, which divides cultural adaptation process into five phases: contact, desintegration, reintegration, autonomy and independence.
The shortcomings of the above theory lie in taking the full assimilation of the mainstream society to immigrants as an ideal state, only emphasizing the unilateral influence of the mainstream society on cultural adapters and ignoring interactive impact between cultural adapters and a guest-home society. Then, John W. Berry's cultural adaptation model is a two-dimensional cross-cultural model of acculturation model which is applicable to multicultural societies (Berry, 1980). In this theoretical model, cultural adaptation is divided into four different types according to the attitudes of adapters: integration, separation, assimilation and marginalization (Berry, 1980). If the cultural adapters want to maintain their original cultural identity and cultural characteristics, they also want to establish and maintain a good relationship with the members of a mainstream society, it is a model of integration; if cultural adapters just want to keep their original cultural identity and cultural characteristics, they do not want to establish any contact with the members of a mainstream society, it belong to a separation model; if cultural adapters do not want to maintain their original cultural identity and cultural characteristics, and they are bent on establishing a good relationship with the members of a mainstream society to get the cultural identity of the mainstream society, that is assimilation model; if cultural adapters do not want to or can not maintain their original cultural identity and cultural characteristics, nor do them want or establish links with the members of a mainstream society, it belongs to marginalization.
2.2 Chinese society's attitude towards studying abroad
2.3 Higher education in the UK
2.4 Mental problems of Chinese students in the UK
2.4.1 Loneliness, a sense of closure
2.4.3 Anxiety, depression
2.4.4 Indulgent mood
2.6 Negative effects brought by mental health problems
2.7 Discussion on cultural differences and mental health problems
2.7.2 Interpersonal relationship
2.7.3 Living habits
2.8.1 Cross-cultural training
2.8.2 Making more friends
2.8.3 Playing the roles of Chinese Students' Association
The differences between Chinese and English cultures in education, interpersonal communication and living habits are the main reasons for Chinese students' loneliness, depression, irritability, indulgence and other metal health problems. The consequences of these problems include: decline in performance, decreased physical conditions, failing to make friends, having violence, alcohol, cheating and other undesirable behavior. In this study, the author was based on Berry’s (1980) theory, from three perspectives: cross-cultural training, making friends and paying attention to the role of Chinese Students' Association to put forward recommendations on solving the mental health problems of Chinese students in the UK.
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