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中国福利彩票25选5开奖号码:essay格式范文|管理的全面評估

時間:2017-01-07 10:14來源:25选5预测推荐 www.mwpqu.com 作者:cinq 點擊:
本文是留學生essay格式范文,主要內容是介紹了管理的基本概念,并且對其在組織中所起的作用進行全面評估。
管理的全面評估
An holistic assessment of managment
 
這個項目定義了對組織工作中管理的理解.。該項目簡要介紹了管理的概念及其在組織中的重要性。在這篇文章中詳細討論了以領導為主的領導。指導和其他管理職能之間的關系,監督和管理之間的差異和管理的重要性,通過案例研究也是項目的一部分。
 
SYNOPSIS 介紹
 
This project defines the understanding of management in the working of an organization. This project gives a brief about the concepts of management and its importance in the organization. In this a detailed discussion about directing mainly leadership is talked about. Relation between directing and other managerial functions, difference between supervision and management and importance of management through case studies is also part of the project.
 
1.INTRODUCTION 簡介
 
管理只不過是通過有效和短期地實現短期目標來實現一個人一生或企業的長遠目標.。管理不僅是任何行業的重要方面,同樣重要的是一個人的生活和每一個任務,他應該管理好。在簡單的詞管理定義為組織和協調活動的業務,以實現定義的目標。
 
Management is nothing but fulfilling the long term objective of one’s life or enterprise by achieving short term goals effectively and efficiently. Management is not only important aspect of any industry it is equally essential is one life and every task he performs should be managed well. Management in simple word is defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives. (BusinessDictionary.com, 2015)
 
According to F.W. Taylor, “it is an art of knowing about when to do, what to do and see that the things are done in the best, effective, efficient and cheapest way”. (BusinessDictionary.com, 2015)
 
1.1: - MANAGEMENT AS AN ART AND SCIENCE: - Management is both a science as well as an art. Art is the creative and private application of inhabited knowledge to achieve desired goals. Managers in industry practice the art of management in the daily routine works of managing and industry based on observation and experience. Literature’s available in marketing in various areas of management like marketing, finance and human resources help the managers to specialize in areas based on theoretical knowledge. This theories and knowledge provided by literature are modified by managers according to different situations which make management as an art. Management has its own theories, principles and vocabulary which has been developed over a period of time which are used by managers in better understanding of their work situation. - These principles and theories are used for training and development of managers which managers modify according to given situation as management deals with human beings and their behavior. It makes management as an inexact science.
 
1.2: - FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT: -
 
PLANNING: - Planning is deciding in advance what to do and how to do and involves setting objectives and developing a framework of action to achieve these objectives. Preparing provides directions, decreases challenges of anxiety, reduces overlapping and wasteful pursuits and indorses modern ideas, encourages decision generating, establishes criteria for controlling. Types of plans are: -
 
•Objectives
•Strategy
•Policy
•Procedure
•Rule
•Programme
•Budget (Business studies part-1 NCERT class XII, 2015)
 
ORGANISING: - It is the process of describing and assembling activities and establishing authority relationships among them. Process of organizing consists of following steps: -
 
•Identification and division of work
•Departmentalization
•Assignment of Duties
•Establishing of reporting relationships
 
It leads to division of work, clarity in reporting relationships, optimum utilization of resources, growth, better administration and greater creativity. (Business studies part-1 NCERT class XII, 2015)
 
STAFFING: - It has been described as the managerial function of filling and keeping filled, the positions in an organization structure. This is achieved by, first of all, identifying requirement of work force, followed by recruitment, selection, placement, promotion, appraisal and development of personnel to fill the roles designed into the organization structure. In simplest terms staffing is ‘putting people to jobs’. (Business studies part-1 NCERT class XII, 2015)
 
DIRECTING: - Directing is a complex managerial function consisting of all the activities that are designed to encourage subordinates to work effectively. It includes supervision, motivation, communication and leading. (Business studies part-1 NCERT class XII, 2015)
 
CONTROLLING: - Controlling is the practice of ensuring and keeping the track that planned activities obey to planned activities. It helps in achieving organizational goals. It helps in keeping a look on accurateness of standards, safeguarding efficient utilization of resources, increasing employee morale, creating an atmosphere of order and discipline in the organization and coordinating different tasks so that they all work together in one direction to meet objectives. (Business studies part-1 NCERT class XII, 2015)
 
2.LITERATURE REVIEW 文獻綜述
 
‘‘A good leader encourages followers to tell him what he
 
Needs to know, not what he wants to hear.’’
 
—John C. Maxwell. (Carroll, 2008)
 
Leading and directing are continuous processes, but we can divide them down into some key tasks in which managers usually involve. In fact, the activities (or fundamentals) we discuss here depict the diversity of leading and directing and demonstrate how they can vary from situation to situation. They include: (1) telling someone what to do, (2) providing information on how to do it, (3) seeing that he or she has learned how to do it, (4) making the performance of the work as appealing and comfortable as possible, and (5) conferring specific rewards or punishments for performance. (Powers & Barrows, 1999).
 
2.1 ELEMENTS OF DIRECTION: - The procedure of direction in an organization includes coaching, guiding, motivating, and leading the individuals in an organization to attain organizational goals. 4 categories which are element of directing are: -
 
•Supervision
 
•Motivation
 
•Leadership
 
•Communication
 
2.2 PROBLEMS FACED BY CHEF AS A LEADER TODAY: - Chefs of twenty first century are no more the cooks whose purpose mainly is to plan the menus or deliver great visual appeal to the dishes but he also has to but also to make subordinate follow company mission, take and encourage sanitation and nutrition classes, appreciate world flavors and ingredients and in ‘‘spare time’’ be a role model and motivator for all subordinates and encourage them to innovate. The Chef who is capable to form a team and then lead and motivate that team is the chef of today and the future.
 
2.3 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND SUPERVISION: - Supervision means instructing, guiding, monitoring and observing the employees while they are performing jobs in the organization. The word supervision is the combination of two words, i.e., supervision where super means over and above and vision means seeing. So, supervision means seeing the activities of employees from over and above. (Yourarticlelibrary.com, 2015)There are several slight differences between supervision and management. The supervisor’s work occurs at the operating level; that is, he as well as she works directly with the employees when they do their own work. Management, however, is involved with your totality of the organization’s complications. Managers operating in long-range arranging may well find some need—for illustration, to redesign the organization structure as well as the management system. Often, especially in large organizations, managers direct the job of managers, who, consequently, direct supervisor’s tasks involving employees. (Powers & Barrows, 1999)
 
2.4 COMMUNICATION
 
2.4.1WHAT IS COMMUNICATION: -
 
“Communicate, communicate, communicate- until you are sick of hearing yourself. Then communicate some more.” – Jack Welch Former CEO of General Electric. (Carroll, 2008)
 
Organizational Communication is an evolutionary, culturally, dependent process of sharing information and creating relationships in environments designed for manageable, goal-oriented behavior (Fisher, 2007)
 
2.4.2 IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION: -
 
A good leader always investigates about the problem or failure in the organization and most often concludes that the message was not communicated as required. A good leader always believe in having a futuristic approach in communication. He communicates the future plans before the event so that one can prepare himself for the task in hand. Here is one example of your communication ability that works great for Chef Charles.


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