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時間:2019-02-11 10:39來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
The proposal of Cultural participation in Europe- Trends in culture visitor behavior in both respective of voracious consumer, cultural omnivore 導讀:這是一篇Master essay格式范文,主要討論了研究文化旅游者行為在貪婪消費和
The proposal of Cultural participation in Europe- Trends in culture visitor behavior in both respective of voracious consumer, cultural omnivore
導讀:這是一篇Master essay格式范文,主要討論了研究文化旅游者行為在貪婪消費和文化雜食兩個方面的發展趨勢。
1.0 Introduction 引言
人們在不同的文化環境中旅行,如國際旅行者、移民和其他旅游群體。他們經歷了不同數量的迷失,消費者的生活方式和符號系統,雖然理解這些差異并不簡單。
在不同的文化空間中,社會生活和市場監管的某些方面似乎差異很大,而另一些方面則令人放心,這是公認的國際游客。不同的飲食習慣、著裝規范、語言和社會期望坐在一起,同時,與普通品牌,等于市場對交易的約定(如付款方式)和一般媒體和娛樂產品。此外,在任何特定的文化環境中,一些空間差異都很低(Burli、Kotturshettar和Dalmia,2012年)。國際機場購物中心是最受歡迎的旅游目的地之一,也是中央商務區的首都,在大多數發達國家代表著最國際化、甚至是世界文化消費環境。然而,在這些領域和市場空間,文化差異往往變得更加明顯。再者,當代消費社會在保持國際、民族和地區文化特色的同時,其消費者。很少有人跨越文化邊界,把同質的空間和文化變成另一種文化同質。游客遇到文化環境,選擇或傾向于進入一個新的跨文化空間的文化也決定了他們的體驗(Lopes,2010年)。此外,對新文化背景價值觀和社會約束的回應。在全球化的世界里,商品、資本和發達國家的信息越來越能夠在文化空間之間流動,了解跨文化(或“跨文化”)的消費體驗越來越必要。
People travel between different culture environment, such as the international travelers, immigration and other tourist groups. They are experiencing a different number of disorientation, the consumer's life style and symbol systems, although understanding these differences which are not simple.
Some aspects of social life and the market regulation seems to vary widely between different cultural spaces, while others are reassuring, which is a recognized international tourists. Different eating habits, dress code, language and social expectations sit together, at the same time, with the ordinary brand, is equal to the market to trade agreement (such as payment method) and general media and entertainment products. In addition, some space differentiations are low in any specific cultural environment(Burli, Kotturshettar, &Dalmia, 2012). International airport shopping centers, and one of the most popular tourist destinations and the capital city of central business district, are in most developed countries represent the most international, even the world, and the culture consumption settings. However in these areas and market space cultural differences tend to become more obvious. Furthermore, the contemporary consumer society while maintaining international, national and regional cultural characteristics, their consumers. Few people cross cultural boundaries, leaving a homogeneous space and culture into another cultural homogeneity. Visitors encounter cultural environment, select or tend to enter into a new culture of cross cultural space also determine their experience (Lopes, 2010). In addition, the response to the new culture background values and social constraints. In a globalized world where information on goods, capital and the developed countries are more able to move between the cultural space, understand cross-cultural (or "crossing - culture") consumption experience more and more necessary. 
Therefore, this article is intended to research the trends in culture visitor behavior in both respective of voracious consumer, cultural omnivore.
2.0 Literature review
Grotte has stated (2013) that long tradition from social science research can be informedcrossing - culture experience, the study is potential to check one way to adapt to the new cultural environment often referred to as "cultural adaptation" process. Although there are many reasons and motives "cross-cultural", such as travel, work, education, happiness and permanent residence, the vast majority of research only deals with such environment, the immigrants. Most studies also focus on the individual (usually a "minority group") in Europe. Between a large number of people of different cultural environment, and North America immigration research is still in exploring the negotiability of other border crossings
Cultural adaptation reaction is "bi - culturalism", tourists at home and the host's cultural values into their personal and social identity(Hughes & Allen, 2009). Other terms have been developed, including "cultural negotiation", "cultural identity" and "cultural marginalization", trying to represent the existing and New Deal with the complex mix of cultural values. The challenges of culture (s) are as a discrete, stable or static and beyond the understanding of a one-way acculturation. They show visitors management comfort and contradiction of national culture and new culture, may be in a unique way to integrate the two create a "new" (sub) culture.
Acculturation think immigration of consumer behavior including more than a simple assimilation of the establishment of consumption patterns showed that consumer’s acculturation describes a compromise the process of learning and skills and behavior of selective display culture definition(Eugenio-Martin&Campos-Soria, 2011). Proper ability and master certain types of cultural knowledge are identified as the key in different consumption patterns and consumption behavior of tourists. A problem is the premise of this concept, it denied "immigrants" consumption and consumer behavior may constitute a kind of important cultural study, especially the consumers feel particularly competent in the use of the material wealth and the symbolism of the reading material culture.
3.0 Hypotheses
This article is dedicated to research the trends in culture visitor behavior in both respective of voracious consumer and cultural omnivore, as the consequence, the following two hypotheses could summarize: 
H1: Culture visitor behaviors could be positive through voracious consumers
H2: Culture visitor behaviors could be positive through cultural omnivore
4.0 Data and method
In the form of the research method, the survey could be conducted across the students and customers from the university who has different cultural backgrounds. Randomly sample size could be 100 international students and also 100 customers for the Festivals. In addition, in the survey, 10 questions could be designed for the research purpose. 
In the data analysis, the SPSS could be applied for the result of the survey. In the first stage, finding Cronbach’s alpha checked reliability of the data, which measures internal consistency or average correlation of items in a survey instrument to gauge its reliability. In second stage bi-variate correlation analysis was used to assess the strength of relationship between dependent and independent variables. In third stage multiple regression analysis was applied to check the contribution individual constructs on performance measures. Coefficient of determination (R-square) was used to check the model adequacy. Finally Z-test was used to test the significance of two groups. 
5.0 Research paper timeframe
Week 1: design the questionnaires and allocated the questionnaires to each international student and customers in the purposed locations; 
Week 2&3: Collection of the data and analysis of the data; 
Week 4: Prepared to write the research paper; 
Week 5: Proof reading and correction
6.0 Limitation for the research
Time is limited for the research paper, so that sample size is limited for the research purpose. Also, the research paper is based on the questionnaires result analysis from SPSS, the result could be the opinion by the surveyors. 
Reference lists
Burli, S. B., Kotturshettar, B. B., &Dalmia, R. V. (2012). Multiple Performance Measures: Six TQM Practices. SCMS Journal Of Indian Management, 9(1), 69-79.
Eugenio-Martin, J. L., & Campos-Soria, J. A. (2011). Income and the substitution pattern between domestic and international tourism demand. Applied Economics, 43(20), 2519-2531. doi:10.1080/00036840903299698
Grotte, J. (2013). Budget Tourism - Transition Economy. International Journal Of Business Insights & Transformation, 6(2), 104-109.
Hughes, H. L., & Allen, D. (2009). Central and Eastern Europe and EU accession 2004: Views of the impact on tourism. Tourism & Hospitality Research, 9(3), 185-198. doi:10.1057/thr.2009.9
Lopes, C. A. (2010). Consumer morality in times of economic hardship: evidence from the European Social Survey. International Journal Of Consumer Studies, 34(2), 112-120. doi:10.1111/j.1470-6431.2009.00845.x


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