25选5预测推荐 www.mwpqu.com 導讀：本文是一篇新西蘭高中生作業，具體要求是關于分析跨文化的智慧觀。通過閱讀以下圖文內容來寫作途中的問題。
(i) What are some key features of the text which make it distinctive from other text genres? 文本的一些關鍵特征是什么，使其與其他文本類型不同？
The text belongs to research paper, and its title gives a brief introduction to the overall text, which is retrieved from Intelligence across cultures. It can be easily understood that the text is mainly about the intelligence across culture. The first sentence in Paragraph A shows that people with different culture have different identifications and ideas about intelligence. So it can be concluded that the purpose of the text is to compare the difference between the people with different culture by making research. In this text, that cognitive styles have been developed in East Asian and Western cultures is introduced.
The style of the text is written in formal format as academic text. The text is in a scientific way of thinking and draws scientific conclusions in the end. And there are a few pronouns in the whole text. In addition, respecting the structure of the text, it is very clear and well-organized. Also, the language of text is concise in general.
(ii) What are some key language elements of the text?文本的一些關鍵語言元素是什么？
The text is aimed at giving an exact description of the different views of intelligence across culture. Studies are made to analysis of the phenomenon. The study made by Richard Nesbitt of the University of Michigan (paragraph B) and another study made by Sternberg and Grogorenko all strongly support the view mentioned in the paper. And the use of modals in the text is vial for the fluency. In the paragraph D of text, can is used for recommendations (academic intelligence can develop…). In addition, passive tend often occurs in academic papers. In the academic articles, most of the sentences are called passive sentences, because the author wants to treat issues objectively, instead of putting emphasis on the body of the behaviors.
(iii) What pattern(s) of organization can you see in the text (eg listing, sequence, comparison/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution, extended definition)? What signal words can you find?您在文本中可以看到什么樣的組織模式（例如列表、順序、比較/對比、因果、問題/解決方案、擴展定義）？你能找到什么信號詞？
To be exact, the main pattern of organization is comparison as a whole. Usually, the comparison text would choose different targets according to the demands of topic. And then, a detailed research scope will be made and applied to the targets. Then all the resources and data will be collected to analysis situation. Finally, a conclusion can be reached. The process is mainly as above. In terms of the text, view of intelligence of culture, they choose different communities as targets from Asia to Africa. It is obvious that different people have different opinions about the intelligence, especially in different areas.
There are many signal words, such as, cognitive, intelligence and so on. The view of intelligence has an important impact on the cognitive ability. A test can be adopted to develop the absence of cultural bias.
(iv) What makes the text cohesive and coherent?是什么使文本具有凝聚力和連貫性？
The debate of cohesion and coherence last for decade. But now, there are still many linguists who overemphasize the function of nonstructural cohesion devices.
Cohesion originally appeared in discourse analysis a basic term, which is regarded as a vital issue. As a matter of fact, cohesion is expressed partly by vocabulary and grammar. Therefore, it can be divided into 2 parts: lexical cohesion and grammatical cohesion. The text begins with a introduction of the topic in paragraph A. paragraph focus on that people in western cultures regard intelligence as a means for individuals. From paragraph C to Paragraph D, the studies are discussed in a scientific way. The last paragraph mainly talks about the solution to the dilemma.
In terms of coherence, a text is coherent in two aspects: it is coherent with respect to the situation context and therefore consistent in text. Fries (1983) &Danes (1974) abstracted several patterns of Thematic Progression which could be adopted to explain whether a text is coherent or not. In addition, cohesion combines ideas with sentences.
In general, a text normally has register consistency, and it should fit a given set of features of situation. The text contains some degree of coherence in the actual meaning not only in the content but also in total selection from the semantic resources of the language. For example, the values and concepts are replaced (paragraph A) by cognition. 一般來說，文本通常具有寄存器一致性，并且它應該適合給定的一組情況特征。文本在實際意義上不僅在內容上具有一定的連貫性，而且在語言語義資源的整體選擇上也具有一定的連貫性。例如，價值觀和概念被認知所取代（A段）。
In all, the text is a reasonably formal example of research paper written to introduce the views of intelligence across culture, which is organized around a central thesis and uses insights based on the research. In the text, there are descriptive adequacy and explanatory adequacy to analysis the issues. In addition, author makes full use of modals, passive tend and so on in the text. When people write some kind of paper next time, they should understand the type of paper and apply techniques to the paper.