這個主題的標題告訴人們主題文本，這是標志的建議。該文本是從一本叫袖珍指南的書，技術寫作（2 Ed）有兩個作家的總和。在這本書中，Jeff Bilstrorn寫了這個商業計劃書給Gary Lane。這本書的作者叫菲佛，W.S.的讀者是Gary Jane和其他人對這項業務感興趣。本文的主要目的是要在標志的建議和這篇文章的第二個目的是告訴學生的商業建議寫作的方法。在某種程度上，它是一個正式的提議，但它不像學術文章那樣正式。例如，“相當”在第7段使用，我會停止使用“的”。整個文本是由你和我們的代名詞寫的。The title of this subject tells people the topic of the text, which is the logo proposal. The text is taken from a book called Pocket guide to technical writing (2 nd Ed) There are two writers in sum. In this book, Jeff Bilstrorn wrote this commercial proposal to Gary Lane. The book’s author is called Pfeiffer, W.S. The readers are Gary Jane and other people who are interested in this business. The main intention of this text is to hand in the logo proposal and the second aim of this text is to tell students the method of business proposal writing. To some extent,it is a formal proposal but it is not as formal as an academic article. For instance, the use of “quite” in paragraph 7 and the use of I’ll stop by later”. And the whole text is written by pronoun you and we.
(ii) What are some key language elements of the text?（二）什么是一些關鍵的語言元素的文本？
The main tense of this text is present tense and in the paragraph 9, it mainly uses the present perfect tense (However, I have been able to...”) Present continuous tense is also use in this text. For instance , in paragraph 2 (we are sending a confusing message..) The reason why these tenses are used mainly is that the text can have a good order without the changes of active and passive verbs. In this way , readers can put forward their own opinion. Of course, active voice takes up the large part of the text even though there are some examples of passive voices, for instance, in paragraph 4( ...could be provided by a logo on the cover) in general, a very formal writing usually contains lots of passive voices. For example, in paragraph 4, a conditional sentence (if it contained..) Some modal verbs are also used in this text such as could and would in paragraph 4 and paragraph 5, which shows a kind of uncertainty.
What pattern(s) of organization can you see in the text ? What signal words can you find?這個組織的主要模式是從問題到解決。這種模式通常被用來當有一個問題和一個以上的解決方案的問題。在第3段中，提出的問題，并在下面的段落中的問題的解決方案。更重要的是，列表模式應用在文本的主體上。在4、6和8段的要點逐一列出，這有助于簡化推理。在第5段和第9段中，因果模式都是用這樣的短語：“作為一個結果……”和“因為……”，在最后，序列模式是使用在第7段（那么，一次）。不同序列模式的應用呈現出作者在寫作中的高技能。不同的序列模式使文本生動，讀者在閱讀時不會感到乏味。
The main pattern of this organization is from problem to solution. This kind of pattern is usually used when there is a problem and more than one solutions to the problem. In paragraph 3, the problem is put forward and in the following paragraph the solution to the problem is presented. What’s more, listing pattern is applied in the main body of the text. In paragraph 4,6 and 8, the bullet points listed one by one, which is helpful to simplify the reasoning. In paragraph 5 and paragraph 9, cause and effect pattern are used with the phrase like: “as a result...” And “Because of that...” in the end, the pattern of sequence is is used in the paragraph 7 like (then, once). The application of different sequence pattern presents the author’s high skill in writings. Various sequence pattern makes the text vivid and the readers will not feel dull when read it.
What makes the text cohesive and coherent?是什么讓文本有凝聚力和連貫性？
If the development of the ideas is logical and understandable, then the text is cohesive. Subheadings are in bold, which seems a frame of the text. Firstly, a simple introduction is put forward in the beginning and then the solution sis given and how much the log costs is illustrated. A conclusion is show in the end of the text. Lost of linking words are used in this text such as however in paragraph seven and “as a result” in paragraph 5 and “because of” in paragraph 9.
The ways in which the ideas and sentences are linked are described by cohesion. Repeat nouns and verbs are used. For instance, logo and develop are all repeated words used in the text. Logo appears 12 times and develop appears 3 times.the synonyms are also applied in lots of ways. For instance, symbol and decal are applied instead of the application of logo.
總之，它可以被看作是一種正式的報告，這是寫給問題和解決方案，以良好的商業寫作。祈使句是由作者多次提供的標識的程序。情態詞告訴人們一些可能性和人稱代詞似乎不是正式的，它可以被人們接受，而不是一個純粹的正式的。備忘錄的內容是一個很好的組織，它給人們一個清晰的頭腦。大量的連接詞和一些同義詞被應用到鏈接的文本。In conclusion, it can be regard as a kind of formal report which is written to give the problem and its solutions to good writing in business. Imperatives are used for many times by the author to offer the procedure of the logo. Modal words tells people some possibilities and personal pronoun seems not that formal, which can be accepted by people more than a pure formal one. The content of the memo is in a good organization, which gives people a clear mind. Lots of linking words and some synonyms are applied to link the text. The structure of this text is very clear: a whole introduction to the text and then the problem and solutions are put forward. Cost of log is presented in details. And then a conclusion in the end.